The Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Control and Vision Research Group, AIR-CV of the Research Center Optics A.C. was created with the purpose of merging several high-impact areas, creating synergies among its members to provide solutions to social issues related to priority areas of the country, such as agriculture, health and energy. Robotics, control, computer vision and artificial intelligence are disciplines that facilitate problem-solving and decision-making in a practical, efficient way and short periods. The group's main objective is to carry out basic and frontier science and technological developments TRL4-TRL6 and to train high-quality human capital.


To be a consolidated multidisciplinary research group of high national and international references in the development of basic and frontier research and technological developments with social and industrial applications, as well as in the training of high-quality human resources.


The AIR-CV group CIO A.C. It is formed by four researchers who are part of the National System of Researchers. They are currently working in the areas of robotics, control, vision and artificial intelligence; in agriculture, health and energy projects.

Gerardo Flores

Gerardo" Lines Area
- Drones. - Mechatronics
- Nonlinear control. - Robotics
- Vision systems. - Agriculture
- Robotics: design and control. - Health

Pedro Alfonso Ramirez Pedraza

Alfonso" Lines Area
- 2D/3D Segmentation. - Health.
- Pattern Recognition. - Services.
- Data Science. - Manufacturing.
- Deep Learning. - Agriculture.

Sebastián Salazar Colores

Sebastian" Lines Area
-Computer vision. - AI Applications.
- Image processing. - Health.
- Artificial Intelligence. - Computer vision.
- Biomedical Signal Processing.

Luis Manuel Valentín Coronado

Valentin" Lines Area
- Mobile Robotics. - Robotics
- Motion planning for terrestrial and aerial mobile robots. - Agriculture
- Automatic control of mobile robots. - Energy
- Artificial vision and image processing.



  • Gerardo Flores, Longitudinal modeling and control for the convertible unmanned aerial vehicle: Theory and experiments, in ISA Transactions, vol. 122, pp. 312-335, 2022
  • Omar Rodríguez-Abreo, Francisco-Javier Ornelas-Rodríguez, Alfonso Ramírez-Pedraza, Juan B. Hurtado-Ramos, José-Joel González-Barbosa, Backstepping control for a UAV-manipulator tuned by Cuckoo Search algorithm, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 147, 2022, 103910, ISSN 0921-8890.
  • F. Garibaldi, Gerardo Flores, D. Mercado, A. Ramírez, L. Valentín, “Weed Classification from Natural Corn Field-Multi-Plant Images Based on Shallow and Deep Learning,” in Sensors, vol. 22, 3021, 2022.
  • González-Barbosa, José-Joel and Ramírez-Pedraza, Alfonso and Ornelas-Rodríguez, Francisco-Javier and Cordova-Esparza, Diana-Margarita and González-Barbosa, Erick-Alejandro, Dynamic Measurement of Portos Tomato Seedling Growth Using the Kinect 2.0 Sensor, Agriculture, Vol 12, Num 4, 2022. 
  • Mohammad Reza-Rahmati, Gerardo Flores, "Graded Linearity of Stanley–Reisner Ring of Broken Circuit Complexes", Journal of Mathematics, vol. 2022, Article ID 1806967, 12 pages, 2022
  • Gerardo Flores, N. Aldana and M. Rakotondrabe, "Model Predictive Control Based on the Generalized Bouc-Wen Model for Piezoelectric Actuators in Robotic Hand With Only Position Measurements," in IEEE Control Systems Letters, vol. 6, pp. 2186-2191, 2022
  • Gerardo Flores and M. Rakotondrabe, "Robust Nonlinear Control for a Piezoelectric Actuator in a Robotic Hand Using Only Position Measurements," in IEEE Control Systems Letters, vol. 6, pp. 872- 877, 2022
  • Daniela Esparza and Gerardo Flores, "The STDyn-SLAM: A Stereo Vision and Semantic Segmentation Approach for VSLAM in Dynamic Outdoor Environments," in IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 18201-18209, 2022.
  • Paredes-Orta, Carlos, Luis M. Valentin-Coronado, Arturo Díaz-Ponce, Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz, and Jorge D. Mendiola-Santibañez. 2022. "Distortion Calculation Method Based on Image Processing for Automobile Lateral Mirrors" Micromachines 13, no. 3: 401.
  • Santander-Cruz, Yamanki & Salazar-Colores, Sebastián & Paredes-García, Wilfrido & Guendulain-Arenas, Humberto & Tovar-Arriaga, Saúl. 2022. Semantic Feature Extraction Using SBERT for Dementia Detection. Brain Sciences. 12.270.
  • Salazar-Colores, Sebastián & Moreno, Hugo & Moya-Sanchez, E. Ulises & Ortiz Echeverri, Cesar & Paz, Luis & Flores, Gerardo. 2022. Eliminación de los efectos de humo en cirugía laparoscópica usando redes antagónicas generativas y el principio del canal oscuro. Cirugía y Cirujanos. 90.
  • Mejía-Peréz, K.; Córdova-Esparza, D.-M.; Terven, J.; Herrera-Navarro, A.-M.; García-Ramírez, T.; Ramírez-Pedraza, A. Automatic Recognition of Mexican Sign Language Using a Depth Camera and Recurrent Neural Networks. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 5523. 


  • Alejandro Flores and Gerardo Flores, “Implementation of a Neural Network for Nonlinearities Estimation in a Tail-Sitter Aircraft,” in Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, vol. 103, no. 22, 2021
  • R. Verdín, G. Ramírez, C. Rivera and Gerardo Flores, "Teleoperated aerial manipulator and its avatar. Communication, system's interconnection, and virtual world," 2021 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), 2021, pp. 1488-1493. 
  • A. Flores and Gerardo Flores, "Development and implementation of a new flight mode called Cartesian flight mode for easy piloting of muli-rotor UAVs," 2021 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), pp. 237-242.
  • Andrés Montes de Oca and Gerardo Flores, “The AgriQ: A low-cost unmanned aerial system for precision agriculture,” in Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 182, 115163. 
  • A. M. de Oca and Gerardo Flores, "A UAS equipped with a thermal imaging system with temperature calibration for Crop Water Stress Index computation," 2021 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), 2021, pp. 714-720. 
  • Gerardo Flores and M. Rakotondrabe, "Output Feedback Control for a Nonlinear Optical Interferometry System," in IEEE Control Systems Letters, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1880-1885, Dec. 2021
  • Ramirez-Pedraza Alfonso and González-Barbosa José-Joel and Ramirez-Pedraza Raymundo and González-Barbosa Erick-Alejandro and Hurtado-Ramos Juan-Bautista, Automobile indexation from 3D point clouds of urban scenarios, Automatika, Vol. 62, 2021
  • Moya-Sanchez, E. Ulises & Xambó-Descamps, Sebastià & Abraham, Sanchez & Salazar-Colores, Sebastián & Cortés, Ulises. 2021. A Trainable Monogenic ConvNet Layer Robust in front of Large Contrast Changes in Image Classification. IEEE Access. PP. 1-1.
  • Moya-Sanchez, E. Ulises & Xambó-Descamps, Sebastià & Sánchez, Abraham & Salazar-Colores, Sebastián & Cortés, Ulises. 2021. A trainable monogenic ConvNet layer robust in front of large contrast changes in image classification.
  • Ángeles-Hurtado L, Rodríguez-Reséndiz J, Salazar-Colores S, Torres-Salinas H and Sevilla-Camacho PY 2021 Viable Disposal of Post-Consumer Polymers in Mexico: A Review. Front. Environ. Sci. 9:749775.
  • Moya-Sánchez, E.U., Xambó-Descamps, S., Salazar Colores, S., Sánchez Pérez, A., Cortés, U. 2021. A Quaternion Deterministic Monogenic CNN Layer for Contrast Invariance. In: Xambó-Descamps, S. (eds) Systems, Patterns and Data Engineering with Geometric Calculi. SEMA SIMAI Springer Series(), vol 13. Springer, Cham.


  • S. Alvarez and Gerardo Flores, “PID Principles to Obtain Adaptive Variable Gains for a Bi-orderSliding Mode Control,” in International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems, vol. 18, pp. 2456–2467, 2020
  • Gerardo Flores, V. González, and A. Rodríguez, “Output Feedback Control for a Quadrotor Aircraft Using an Adaptive High Gain Observer,” in International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems, vol. 18, pp. 1474–1486, 2020
  • Vasquez-Gomez, Juan & Marciano-Melchor, Magdalena & Valentín, Luis & Herrera Lozada, Juan. 2020. Coverage Path Planning for 2D Convex Regions. Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems. 97.
  • Lopez-Nava, Irvin H., Luis M. Valentín-Coronado, Matias Garcia-Constantino, and Jesus Favela. 2020. "Gait Activity Classification on Unbalanced Data from Inertial Sensors Using Shallow and Deep Learning" Sensors 20, no. 17: 4756.
  • S. Salazar-Colores, H. M. Jiménez, C. J. Ortiz-Echeverri and G. Flores, "Desmoking Laparoscopy Surgery Images Using an Image-to-Image Translation Guided by an Embedded Dark Channel," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 208898-208909, 2020.
  • Salazar-Colores, S., Moya-Sánchez, E. U., Ramos-Arreguín, J. M., Cabal-Yépez, E., Flores, G., and Cortés, U. 2020. Fast single image defogging with robust sky detection. IEEE Access, 8:149176–149189.
  • Sánchez-Reyes, L.-M., Rodríguez-Reséndiz, J., Salazar-Colores, S., Avecilla-Ramírez, G. N., and Pérez-Soto, G. I. 2020. A high-accuracy mathematical morphology and multilayer perceptron-based approach for melanoma detection. Applied Sciences, 10(3):1098.
  • Moya-Sánchez, E. U., Xambó-Descamps, S., Pérez, A. S., Salazar-Colores, S.,Martinez-Ortega, J., and Cortés, U. 2020. A bio-inspired quaternion local phase cnn layer with contrast invariance and linear sensitivity to rotation angles. Pattern Recognition Letters, 131:56–62
  • Córdova-Esparza, Diana-Margarita and Terven, Juan and Romero-González, Julio-Alejandro and Ramírez-Pedraza, Alfonso, Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Indoor and Outdoor Environments Using a Stereo Catadioptric System, Applied Sciences, Vol. 10, Num. 24, 2020
  • S. Salazar-Colores, H. M. Jiménez, C. J. Ortiz-Echeverri and Gerardo Flores, "Desmoking Laparoscopy Surgery Images Using an Image-to-Image Translation Guided by an Embedded Dark Channel," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 208898-208909, 2020.
  • A. Flores and Gerardo Flores, "Transition control of a tail-sitter UAV using recurrent neural networks," 2020 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), 2020, pp. 303- 309.


  • Valentín Luis, Manuel I. Peña-Cruz, Daniela Moctezuma, Cesar M. Peña-Martínez, Carlos A. Pineda-Arellano, and Arturo Díaz-Ponce. 2019. "Towards the Development of a Low-Cost Irradiance Nowcasting Sky Imager" Applied Sciences 9, no. 6: 1131.
  • Salazar-Colores, S., Ramos-Arreguín, J.-M., Pedraza-Ortega, J.-C., and Rodríguez-Reséndiz, J. 2019c. Efficient single image dehazing by modifying the dark channel prior. EURASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing, 2019(1):66
  • López-Torres, C.-V., Salazar-Colores, S., Kells, K., Pedraza-Ortega, J.-C., and Ramos-Arreguin, J.-M. 2019. Improving 3d reconstruction accuracy in wavelet transform profilometry by reducing shadow effects. IET Image Processing
  • Ortiz-Echeverri, C. J., Salazar-Colores, S., Rodríguez-Reséndiz, J., and Gómez-Loenzo, R. A. 2019b. A new approach for motor imagery classification based on sorted blind source separation, continuous wavelet transform, and convolutional neural network. Sensors, 19(20):4541
  • Salazar-Colores, S., Moya-Sánchez, Ulises, E., Ramos-Arreguín, J.-M., and Cabal-Yépez, E. 2019b. Statistical multidirectional line dark channel for single-image dehazing. IET Image Processing, 13(14):2877–288
  • Salazar-Colores, S., Méndez-Molina, A., Carrillo-López,D., Escobar-Juárez, E., Morales, E. F., and Sucar, L. E.2019a. A fast and robust deep learning approachfor hand object grasping confirmaࢢon. InMexicanInternational Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pages601–612. Springer, Cham.
  • Cruz-Aceves, S. Salazar-Colores, F. Cervantes-Sanchez, A. Hernandez-Aguirre. 3. An unsupervised graph-based approach for the representation of coronary arteries in X-ray angiograms. In Siddhartha Bhadacharyya, IndrajitPan, Abhijit Das, Shibakali Gupta (Eds.), Intelligent Mutimedia Data Analysis (pp. 43–64). Berlin, Boston: DeGruyter, 2019.
  • Ortiz-Echeverri, C., Paredes, O., S. Salazar-Colores, J. S.,Rodríguez-Reséndiz, J., and Romo-Vázquez, R. 2019a.A comparative study of time and frequency features for eeg classification. In Latin American Conference on Biomedical Engineering, pages 91–97. Springer.
  • Salazar Colores, S., Garduño Aparicio, M., Moya Sánchez, E. U., Lopez Torres, C. V., and Ramos Arreguín, J. M. 2019. Dark channel applied for redution of the effects of non-uniform illumination in image binarization. Computación y Sistemas, 23(2):409–416.


  • Salazar-Colores, S., Cabal-Yepez, E., Ramos-Arreguin, J. M., Botella, G., Ledesma-Carrillo, L. M., and Ledesma, S. 2018a. A fast image dehazing algorithm using morphological reconstruction. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 28(5):2357–2366
  • Salazar-Colores, S., Ramos-Arreguin, J.-M., Echeverri, C. J. O., Cabal-Yepez, E., Pedraza-Ortega, J.-C., and Rodriguez-Resendiz, J. 2018c. Image dehazing using morphological opening, dilation and gaussian filtering. Signal, Image and Video Processing, 12(7):1329–1335.
  • Salazar-Colores, S., Cruz-Aceves, I., and Ramos-Arreguin, J.-M. 2018b. Single image dehazing using a mutilayer perceptron. Journal of Electronic Imaging, 27(4).
  • E. Ulises Moya- Sanchez, S. Salazar-Colores Sebastian, A. Sanchez and U. Cortes, Quaternion Phase CNN, 21st International Conferenceof the Catalan Association for Artificial ntelligence. 2018.
  • E. Ulises Moya- Sanchez, S. Salazar Colores, A. Sanchez and U. Cortes. Deep Learning Monogenic ConvolutionalNeural Network, The 7th Conference on Applied Geometric Algebras in Computer Science and Engineering, 2018.

Before 2017

  • I. Becerra, Luis Valentín-Coronado, Rafael Murrieta-Cid and J.-C. Latombe. Reliable Confirmation of an Object Identity by a Mobile Robot: A Mixed Appearance/Localization-Driven Motion Approach, International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol 35, No 10, pages 1207-1233, September 2016.
  • Diana-Margarita Córdova-Esparza, Prof. Juan R. Terven, Prof. Hugo Jiménez-Hernández, Alberto Vázquez-Cervantes, Prof. Ana-Marcela Herrera-Navarro & Alfonso Ramírez-Pedraza (2016) Multiple Kinect V2 Calibration, Automatika, Vol 57 Num. 3. 
  • A.I. García-Moreno, J.J. González-Barbosa, J.B. Hurtado-Ramos, F.J. Ornelas-Rodríguez, A. Ramírez-Pedraza, Análisis de la sensibilidad en un modelo de calibración cámara-LiDAR, Revista Internacional de Métodos Numéricos para Cálculo y Diseño en Ingeniería, Vol 32, Num 4, 2016
  • García-Moreno, Angel-Iván, González-Barbosa José-Joel, Ramírez-Pedraza Alfonso, Hurtado-Ramos Juan B., Ornelas-Rodríguez Francisco Javier, Accurate evaluation of sensitivity for calibration between a LiDAR and a panoramic camera used for remote sensing, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, Vol 10, 2016
  • Jose Martinez-Carranza, Luis Valentin, Francisco Márquez-Aquino, Juan Carlos González-Islas y Nils Loewen. Obstacle Detection during Autonomous Flight of Drones Using Monocular SLAM. In Journal of Research in Computing Science. Vol. 114, ISSN 1870-4069. May 2016.
  • García-Moreno, Angel-Iván and González-Barbosa, Jose-Joel and Ramírez-Pedraza, Alfonso and Hurtado-Ramos, Juan B. and Ornelas-Rodríguez, Francisco-Javier, Complete Sensitivity Analysis in a LiDAR-Camera Calibration Model, Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, Vol 16, Num. 1, 2015
  • A. Ramirez-Pedraza, J. J. Gonzalez Barbosa, J. B. Hurtado Ramos, A. I. Garcia Moreno, F. J. Ornelas Rodriguez and E. A. Gonzalez Barbosa, Detection and Segmentation of 3D Objects in Urban Environments Using Indexation, in IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1120-1128, April 2015
  • Ramírez Pedraza, A., González Barbosa, J. J., Ornelas Rodríguez, F. J., García Moreno, Ángel I., Salazar Garibay, A. y González Barbosa, E. A. 2015 «Detección de Automóviles en Escenarios Urbanos Escaneados por un Lidar», Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática industrial, Vol. 12 Num. 2.  
  • Luis Valentin, Rafael Murrieta-Cid, Lourdes Muñoz, Rigoberto Lopez Padilla and Moises Alencastre. Motion Strategies for Exploration and Map-Building under Uncertainty with Multiple Heterogeneous Robot, Journal Advanced Robotics, Vol 28, No 17, pages 1133-1149, July 2014.
  • Angel-Iván García-Moreno, Denis-Eduardo Hernandez-García, José-Joel Gonzalez-Barbosa, Alfonso Ramírez-Pedraza, Juan B. Hurtado-Ramos, Francisco-Javier Ornelas-Rodriguez, Error propagation and uncertainty analysis between 3D laser scanner and camera, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Volume 62, Issue 6, 2014, Pages 782-793, ISSN 0921-8890. 


- Precision agriculture with intelligent systems.
- Greenhouse seedling monitoring.
- Artificial intelligence and vision systems for medical applications.
- Health (biomedical signals).
- 3D bone structure reconstruction and additive manufacturing.
- Diseases prevention using computer vision.
- Design, construction and quadruped robot control.
- Simultaneous localization and mapping.
- Control for optical systems and micro mechatronic.
- Convertible aircrafts, design, construction and control.
- Algebraic topology.
- Machine vision applications.


Dr. Gerardo Flores
+52 (477) 441 42 00 Ext. 146
Oficina 843 Edificio D
Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A. C.
Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre León, Gto., México.
CP 37150

Dr. Pedro Alfonso Ramírez Pedraza
+52 (477) 441 42 00 Ext. 356
Oficina 1318 Edificio H
Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A.C.
Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre León, Gto., México.
CP 37150

Dr. Sebastián Salazar Colores
+52 (477) 441 42 00 Ext. 312
Oficina 672 Edificio D
Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A. C.
Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre León, Gto., México.
CP 37150

Dr. Luis Manuel Valentin Coronado
+52 (449) 4428124 Ext. 126
Oficina 18 Edificio Principal
Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A. C.
Calle Prol. Constitución 607, Fracc. Reserva Loma Bonita, Aguascalientes, Ags., México.
CP 20200



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Name Description Price
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Name Description Price
Item One Ante turpis integer aliquet porttitor. 29.99
Item Two Vis ac commodo adipiscing arcu aliquet. 19.99
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